Содержание

Д.Р. Жантиев. Сирия (аш-Шам) в системе османских владений (XVI – начало XX в.)



Д.Р. Жантиев. Сирия (аш-Шам) в системе османских владений (XVI – начало XX в.) // Исторический вестник. 2019. Т. ХXIХ. С. 50—71.

D.R. Zhantiev. Syria in the System of the Ottoman Possessions (16th — beginning of the 20th Century) [Siriya (ash-SHam) v sisteme osmanskih vladenij (XVI – nachalo XX v.)]. Istoricheskij vestnik / Historical Reporter. Vol. 29. 2019. P. 50—71.


Ключевые слова: Сирия, Османская империя, Дамаск, хадж, Танзимат, Абдул-Хамид II, модернизация

Key words: Syria, Ottoman Empire, Damascus, Hajj, Tanzimat, Abdul Hamid II, modernization.


Abstract

The article examines the role and place of Greater Syria (including Lebanon and Palestine) in the system of Ottoman possessions over several centuries — from the Ottoman conquest to the period of the reign of Abdul Hamid II. For four centuries of Ottoman domination, the territory of historical Syria (Bilad al-Sham) was one of the most important components in the Ottoman system and played the role of a link between Anatolia, Egypt, Iraq and Hijaz. The need to ensure the Hajj with symbols of Sultan power and patronage over the shrines of Mecca and Medina each year determined the special strategic importance of the Syrian provinces of the Ottoman Empire.

Despite a number of serious threats during the general crisis of the Ottoman state system (late 16th — early 19th centuries), the imperial center managed to maintain control over Syria by creating checks and balances between local elites. In the 19th century. And especially during the reign of Abdul Hamid II (1876–1909), keeping Syria under Ottoman control became a matter of existence for the Ottoman Empire, which, in the face of increasing European pressure and intervention, lost most of its possessions in the Balkans and North Africa.

The task of strengthening ties between the imperial center and the periphery in Syrian vilayets in the last quarter of the 19th century was generally successfully resolved. By the beginning of the 20th century, Syria was one of the most politically calm and firmly connected with Istanbul regions of the Ottoman Empire. This was greatly facilitated by a fairly high level of public safety, the development of foreign trade, the growth of education and the gradual integration of local elites (both Muslims and Christians) into Ottoman state and social mechanisms. Syria’s position in the system of Ottoman possessions clearly showed that the process of weakening and territorial disintegration of the Ottoman Empire during the era of reform was not linear, and along with the loss of possessions and influence in the Balkans, in the Asian part of the empire during the 19th and early 20th centuries there was a parallel process of imperial consolidation.


Аннотация

В статье рассматривается роль и место Сирии (включая Ливан и Палестину) в системе османских владений на протяжении нескольких веков — от османского завоевания до периода правления султана Абдул-Хамида II. В течение четырех столетий османского владычества территория исторической Сирии (Билад аш-Шам) была одним из важнейших компонентов османской системы и играла роль связующего звена между Анатолией, Египтом, Ираком и Хиджазом. Необходимость ежегодной организации хаджа с символами султанской власти и покровительства над святынями Мекки и Медины определяла особую стратегическую важность сирийских провинций Османской империи.

Несмотря на ряд серьезных угроз во время общего кризиса османской государственности (конец XVI – начало XIX вв.), имперскому центру удалось сохранить контроль над Сирией путем создания сдержек и противовесов между местными элитами. В XIX в. и особенно в период правления Абдул- Хамида II (1876–1909 гг.), сохранение Сирии под османским контролем стало вопросом существования Османской империи, которая перед лицом растущего европейского давления и интервенции потеряла большую часть своих владений на Балканах и в Северной Африке.

Задача укрепления связей между имперским центром и периферией в сирийских вилайетах в последней четверти XIX в. была в целом успешно решена. К началу XX в. Сирия была одним из наиболее политически спокойных и прочно связанных со Стамбулом регионов Османской империи. Этому в значительной степени способствовали довольно высокий уровень общественной безопасности, развитие внешней торговли, рост образования и постепенная интеграция местных элит (как мусульман, так и христиан) в османские государственные и социальные механизмы. Положение Сирии в системе османских владений показало, что процесс ослабления и территориальной дезинтеграции Османской империи в эпоху реформ не был линейным и наряду с потерей владений и влияния на Балканах, в азиатской части империи в течение XIX и начала XX вв. происходил параллельный процесс имперской консолидации.


References

1. Abu-Mahheh B. Sultan Abdulhamid II and Shaikh Abulhuda Al-Sayyadi//Middle Eastern Studies/ 1979. Vol. 15. P. 131–153.

2. Barbir K. Ottoman Rule in Damascus, 1708–1758. Princeton, 1980.

3. Deringil S. Legitimacy Structures in the Ottoman State: The Reign of Abdulhamid II (1876–1909)// International Journal of Middle East Studies/ 23 (1991). P. 345–359.

4. Douwes D. The Ottomans in Syria. A History of Justice and Oppression. New York, 2000.

5. Ganich A. Circassians in Jordan: features of historical and ethnocultural development [Cherkesy v Iordanii: osobennosti istoricheskogo i jetnokul’turnogo razvitija]. Moscow, 2007.

6. Hathaway J., Barbir K. The Arab Lands under Ottoman Rule, 1516–1800. New York, 2008.

7. Issawi Ch. The Fertile Crescent, 1800–1914. New York — Oxford, 1988.

8. Karpat K. Ottoman Population, 1830–1914: Demographic and Social Characteristics. Madison, 1985.

9. Karpat K. The Politicization of Islam: Reconstructing Identity, State, Faith, and Community in the Late Ottoman State. Oxford, 2001.

10. Khoury Ph.S. Urban notables and Arab nationalism. The politics of Damascus 1860–1920. Cambridge, 1983.

11. Kirillina S.A, Safronova A.L., Orlov V.V. The idea of Caliphate in the Muslim World (late 19th — early 20th century): Challenges and regional responses [Ideja halifata v musul’manskom mire (konec XIX — nachalo XX v.): vyzovy i regional’nye otkliki]// Islam in the modern world. 2018. Vol. 14. No. 3. P. 133–149.

12. Kobischanov T.Y. Cross over Beirut: Russian expedition to the Eastern Mediterranean 1769–1774 in the perception of Syrian contemporaries. Part 1. From the appearance of the Russian squadron in the Mediterranean to the first assault on Beirut [Krest nad Bejrutom: rossijskaja jekspedicija v Vostochnoe Sredizemnomor’e 1769–1774 gg. v vosprijatii sirijskih sovremennikov. Chast’ 1. Ot pojavlenija v Sredizemnomor’e rossijskoj jeskadry do pervogo shturma Bejruta]// Moscow University Bulletin. Series 13. Oriental Studies. № 1. 2009. P. 3–22.

13. Kobischanov T.Y. Cross over Beirut: Russian expedition to the Eastern Mediterranean 1769–1774 in the perception of Syrian contemporaries. Part 2. The second siege and the capture of Beirut by the Russian fleet [Krest nad Bejrutom: rossijskaja ekspedicija v Vostochnoe Sredizemnomor’e 1769–1774 gg. v vosprijatii sirijskih sovremennikov. Chast’ 2. Vtoraja osada i vzjatie Bejruta rossijskim flotom // Moscow University Bulletin. Series 13. Oriental Studies. № 12. 2009. P. 3–20.

14. Maoz M. Ottoman Reform in Syria and Palestine, 1840–1861. The Impact of the Tanzimat in Politics and Society. Oxford, 1968.

15. Meyer M.S. The Ottoman Empire in the eighteenth century. Patterns of Structural Crisis [Osmanskaja imperija v XVIII v. Cherty strukturnogo krizisa]. Moscow, 1991.

16. Philipp Th. The Governors of Ottoman Bilād al-Shām. The Reconstruction of Individual Biographies by Looking at Groups of Governors Sharing Some Common Features. Bayt al-ʿAẓm as an Example // Occasional Papers in Ottoman Biographies. № 3. Bamberg, 2016.

17. Raymond A. La ville arabe, Alep a l’epoque ottomane (XVIe–XVIIIe siecles). Damas, 1998.

18. Rogan E. The Arabs: A History. New York, 2009.

19. Sen, Gul. Ottoman Servant, Mamluk Rebel? Narrative Strategies in Sixteenth-Century Ottoman Historiography—the Example of Jānbirdī al-Ghazālī’s Downfall // Stephan Conermann / Gul Şen: The Mamluk-Ottoman Transition: Continuity and Change in Egypt and Bilād al-Shām in the Sixteenth Century. Goettingen, 2017. P. 329–344.

20. Syria and Bilad al-Sham under Ottoman Rule. Essays in Honour of Abdul Karim Rafeq. Leiden, 2010.

21. Soleimani K. Islam and Competing Nationalisms in the Middle East, 1876–1926. New York, 2016.

22. Tibawi A.L. A Modern History of Syria, including Lebanon and Palestine. London, 1969.

23. Weismann I. Taste of modernity: Sufism, Salafiyya, and Arabism in Late Ottoman Damascus. Leiden, 2000.

24. Zelenev R.I. Public Administration, the Judiciary, and the Army in Egypt and Syria (XVI — Early XX Century) [Gosudarstvennoe upravlenie, sudebnaja sistema i armija v Egipte i Sirii (XVI — nachalo XX veka)]. St. Petersburg, 2003.

25. Zhantiev D.R. Intercultural contacts during the French intervention in Lebanon 1860–1861 [Mezhkul’turnye kontakty v hode francuzskoj intervencii v Livane 1860–1861 g] //Annuaire d’etudes francaises. 2018. P. 240–256.

26. Zhantiev D.R. Tradition and modernization in the Arab East: reforms in the Syrian provinces of the Ottoman Empire (late XVIII — early XX centuries) [Tradicija i modernizacija na Arabskom Vostoke: reformy v sirijskih provincijah Osmanskoj imperii (konec XVIII — nachalo XX veka)]. Мoscow, 1998.



Номер журнала, к которому относится содержание