Содержание

С.А. Кириллина, А.Л. Сафронова, В.В. Орлов. «Имперский синдром»: концепция османского халифата на Ближнем Востоке и в Южной Азии (первая четверть XX в.)



С.А. Кириллина, А.Л. Сафронова, В.В. Орлов. «Имперский синдром»: концепция османского халифата на Ближнем Востоке и в Южной Азии (первая четверть XX в.) // Исторический вестник. 2019. Т. ХXIХ. С. 216—239.

S.A. Kirillina, A.L. Safronova, V.V. Orlov. The «Imperial Syndrome»: Conception of the Ottoman Caliphate in the Middle East and South Asia (First Quarter of the 20th Century) [«Imperskij sindrom»: koncepciya osmanskogo halifata na Blizhnem Vostoke i v YUzhnoj Azii (pervaya chetvert' XX v.)]. Istoricheskij vestnik / Historical Reporter. Vol. 29. 2019. P. 216—239.


Ключевые слова: Османская империя, Первая мировая война, халифатистское движение, ислам, Ближний Восток, Южная Азия.

Key words: Ottoman Empire, World War I, movement for defense of the Caliphate, Islam, Middle East, South Asia.


Abstract

The article deals with analysis of common and specific features of ideas, propaganda, rhetoric and political actions taken by representatives of the movement for defense of the Caliphate in the Middle East and South Asia. The retrospection showing the transformation of conception of the Caliphate and the necessity of its revival in the works of eminent ideologists and politicians of the Muslim world — Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi, Muhammad Rashid Rida and Abul Kalam Azad, is also given in the article. The authors also focus on the social and political discussions of the 1920s — 1930s, as well as on the agenda of Caliphatist congresses and conferences of this period. They helped to elaborate the early representations of ‘post-Ottoman pattern’ of the Muslim unity and the ideological and political role of the future Caliphate. The authors demonstrate the difference between the forms of reaction of Muslims in the Middle East and South Asia to the repudiation of the Caliphate by the Republican leaders of Turkey. The article establishes a multi-aspect interaction between the Caliphatist values and forms of self-identification, emerged in Arab and South Asian societies. The correlation between the rise of Caliphatist attitudes and radicalization of anti-colonial actions of South Asian Muslims is also outlined.


Аннотация

В статье изучены общие и специфические черты идейных воззрений, пропагандистской риторики и политических действий представителей халифатистского движения на Ближнем Востоке и в Южной Азии. В ретроспективном ключе прослеживается эволюция представлений о сущности и необходимости возрождения института халифата в трудах исламских идеологов, реформаторов и политиков – Джамал ад-Дина ал-Афгани, Абд ар-Рахмана ал-Кавакиби, Мухаммада Рашида Риды, Абул Калама Азада. Внимание авторов сосредоточено на общественно-политических дискуссиях 20–30-х годов XX столетия, а также на повестке дня халифатистских конгрессов и конференций этого периода. На них вырабатывались первые представления современников о «пост-османском формате» мусульманского единства и идейно-политической роли будущего халифата. Авторы демонстрируют различие между моделями реакции мусульман Ближнего Востока и Южной Азии на упразднение османского халифата республиканским руководством Турции. Установлена многоаспектная взаимосвязь между халифатистскими ценностями, проосманскими настроениями и формами самоотождествления, которые сложились в арабских и южноазиатских обществах. Отдельно намечено соотношение между подъемом халифатистских настроений и радикализацией антиколониальных действий мусульман Индостана.


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