Содержание

К.А. Панченко. Падение Триполи 1289 г. в восприятии христианских общин Ближнего Востока



К.А. Панченко. Падение Триполи 1289 г. в восприятии христианских общин Ближнего Востока // Исторический вестник. 2020. Т. ХXХI. С. 134—157.

K.A. Panchenko. The Fall of Tripoli in 1289 in the Perception of Christian Communities of the Middle East [Padenie Tripoli 1289 g. v vospriyatii hristianskih obshchin Blizhnego Vostoka]. Istoricheskij vestnik / Historical Reporter. Vol. 31. 2020. P. 134—157.


Ключевые слова: православные арабы, марониты, крестоносцы, мамлюки, графство Триполи, Сулейман аль-Ашлухи, Джибраил ибн аль-Кила‛и.


Abstract

The article examines the conquest of the County of Tripoli by the Mamelukes in 1289, and the reaction of various Middle Eastern ethnoreligious groups to this event. Along with the Monophysite perspective (the Syriac chronicle of Bar Hebraeus’ Continuator and the work of the Coptic historian Mufaddal ibn Abi-l-Fadail), and the propagandist texts of Muslim Arabic panegyric poets, we will pay special attention to the historical memory of the Orthodox (Melkite) and Maronite communities of northern Lebanon. The contemporary of these events — the Orthodox author Suleiman al-Ashluhi, a native of one of the villages of the Akkar Plateau — laments the fall of Tripoli in his rhymed eulogy. It is noteworthy that this author belongs to the rural Melkite subculture, which — in spite of its conservative character — was capable of producing original literature. Suleiman al-Ashluhi’s work was forsaken by the following generations of Melkites; his poem was only preserved in Maronite manuscripts. Maronite historical memory is just as fragmented. The father of the Modern Era Maronite historiography — Gabriel ibn al-Qilaʿî († 1516) only had fragmentary information on the history of his people in the 13th century: local chronicles and the heroic epos that glorified the Maronite struggle against the Muslim lords that tried to conquer Mount Lebanon. Gabriel’s depiction of the past is not only biased and subject to aims of religious polemics, but also factually inaccurate. Nevertheless, the texts of Suleiman al-Ashluhi and Gabriel ibn al-Qilaʿî give us the opportunity to draw conclusions on the worldview, educational level, political orientation and peculiar traits of the historical memory of various Christian communities of Mount Lebanon.


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Панченко Константин Александрович доктор исторических наук, профессор кафедры Истории стран Ближнего и Среднего Востока Института стран Азии и Африки МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова.

Konstantin A. Panchenko — Doctor of History, Professor of the Institute of Asian and African Studies of the Moscow State University (Department of Middle Eastern and Central Asian Studies).


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