Содержание

Ченцова В.Г. Монахи из Зографа в Киеве и Москве в 20–-30-е гг. XVII в.



DOI   10.35549/HR.2019.2017.35082


   Ченцова В.Г. Монахи из Зографа в Киеве и Москве в 20–-30-е гг. XVII в. // Исторический вестник. 2017. Т. ХХ. С. 164—189.

   Tchentsova V.G. Monks fr om Zograf in Kiev and Moscow in the 20-30s of XVII century [Monahi iz Zografa v Kieve i Moskve v 20–30-e gg. XVII v]. Istoricheskij vestnik / Historical Reporter. 2017. Vol. 20. P. 164–189.

   Ключевые слова: типография, Валахия, Молдавия, Киевская митрополия, Мелетий Македонский, монастырь Зограф, Афон, архивы, греческая палеография

   Key Words: typography, Wallachia, Moldavia, Metropolitan of Kiev, Meletios the Great, monastery of Zographou, mount Athos, archives, Greek paleography.

   Abstract

In 1635 a Meletios nicknamed the Macedonian published the first Slavonic book in a printing house that had been founded shortly before that by the Prince of Wallachia Matei Basarab in Câmpulung. Later on Meletios became the abbot of the Govora monastery where the book printing flourished. The only known fact about his biography and his activities was discovered fr om the prefaces of the books published by him. He was a monk from the monastery of Zographou on Mount Athos and after a stay in «the Russian Lands» wh ere he had «learnt the art of printing», he offered his services to the Wallachian ruler. Some documents from the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts make it possible to retrace the story of a certain Meletios from Zographou who was active in Kyiv and in «Russia» or, it might be better to say, in «Ruthenian lands» in the 1620s and maintained, as it seems, a rather close acquaintance with several well known intellectuals of the Metropolitan See of Kyiv, such as Isaakii Boryskovych, Job Boretsky and Pamva Berynda, who were all very active in book printing. Close ties of the Ruthenian intellectual elite with Zographou allow us to suggest that this keen interest in «the art of printing», which, according to Meletios’ own words, he had already developed on Mount Athos, was not at all accidental. Archival materials also suggest close ties of the Athonite Zographou community with the Romanian principalities and with the authorities of Kyiv, from wh ere they started their alms-collecting trips to Russia.

   Аннотация

В 1635 году некий Мелетий по прозвищу македонец издал первую славянскую книгу в типографии, которая незадолго до этого была основана князем Валахии Матеем Басарабом в Кымпулунге. Позже Мелетий стал настоятелем монастыря, где процветало книгопечатание. Единственный известный факт о его биографии и деятельности был обнаружен из предисловий изданных им книг. Он был монахом из монастыря Зограф на Афоне и после пребывания в «русских землях», где он «научился искусству печати», он предложил свои услуги Валахскому правителю. Некоторые документы из Российского государственного архива древних актов позволяют проследить историю некоего Мелетия из Зографа, который действовал в Киеве и в «русских» или, лучше сказать, в «русских землях» в 1620-е гг. и поддерживал, судя по всему, довольно тесное знакомство с несколькими известными интеллигентами Киевского митрополичьего престола, такими как Исаакий Борыскович, Иов Борецкий и Памва Беринда, которые все были очень активны в книгопечатании. Тесные связи русской интеллектуальной элиты с Зографу позволяют предположить, что этот острый интерес к «искусству печати», который, по словам самого Мелетия, он уже развил на Афоне, был вовсе не случайным. Архивные материалы также свидетельствуют о тесных связях Афонской общины Зографу с румынскими княжествами и с киевским престолом, откуда они начали свои богослужебные поездки в Россию.

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