Избранное

Смышляев А.Л. «Правление по-граждански» в представлении греческих писателей и в практике римской власти

DOI 10.35549/HR.2017.2017.34954

Смышляев А.Л. «Правление по-граждански» в представлении греческих писателей и в практике римской власти // Исторический вестник. 2017. Т. ХIХ. С. 10—49.

    Smyshlyayev A.L. «Dominatio Civilis» as imagined by Greek Writers and performed by Roman Authorities [Pravlenie po-grazhdanski v predstavlenii grecheskih pisatelej i v praktike rimskoj vlasti]. Istoricheskij vestnik / Historical Reporter. Vol. 19. 2019. P. 10–49.

Ключевые слова: Страбон, Аристотель, гражданственная тирания, Ранняя Римская империя, государственное управление, наместники провинций.

Key words: Strabo, Aristotle, Civil Tyranny, Early Roman Empire, Public Administration, Provincial Governors.

    Abstract

The article focuses on the nature and specifics of the Roman administrative system during the Principate period: using an example of provincial government. Strabo wrote that the civil rule (πολιτικῶς ἄρχειν) was typical for Romans during that period. Tertullian defined the Roman system of government as «the civil dominance» (civilis dominatio). These definitions origin comes from the character of the Roman state, specifics of the Early Roman Empire state administration — «a state without bureaucracy». Its nucleus was a city of the Antiquity type (a polis), and the main element of state administration was the local urban self-administration. Roman emperors and province governors were unable to govern the state unless the local city elites voluntarily cooperated with them. Thus they performed a double function: they were both representatives of the supreme power and defenders and proponents of the polises and the polis system of values. This is clearly demonstrated by behaviour models and activity of the province governors at the time of the Early Empire (I–III century AD) who often acted like city magistrates and politicians.

    Аннотация

Статья посвящена характеру и особенностям римской системы управления в эпоху Принципата на примере управления провинциями. Страбон писал о том, что для римлян характерно «правление по-граждански (πολιτικῶς ἄρχειν)). Тертуллиан называл римскую власть «гражданственным владычеством (civilis dominatio)».

Эти определения связаны как с характером Римской державы, так и с особенностями римского государственного управления в эпоху Ранней империи. Она представляла собой «государство без бюрократии». Ее основой был город античного типа (полис), а основным звеном государственного управления – местное городское самоуправление.

Римские императоры и наместники провинций не могли управлять государством без добровольного сотрудничества с ними местных городских элит. Поэтому они выступали в двойственной роли: и как представители центральной власти, и как защитники и гаранты интересов полиса и полисной системы ценностей. Это хорошо видно на примере поведения и деятельности наместников провинций в эпоху Ранней империи (I–III вв. н.э.), которые нередко уподоблялись городским магистратам и политикам.         

    References

1. Alföldi A. Die monarchische Repräsentation im römishen Kaiserreiche. Darmstadt, 1970.

2. Alföldy G. Noricum. L. and Boston, 1974.

3. Angelis F. de. Ius and Space: an Introduction/Spaces of Justice in the Roman World/Ed. by F. de Angelis. Leiden. Boston, 2010. P. 1–25.

4. Bablitz L. Actors and Audience in the Roman Courtroom. N.Y., 2007.

5. Bablitz L. The Platform in Roman Art, 30 BC - AD 180: Forms and Functions/Studies in Latin literature and Roman history XIV. Ed. C. Deroux. Bruxelles, 2008. P. 235–282.

6. Bérenger A. Formation at compétences des gouverneurs de province dans l’Empire romain//Dialogues d’histoire ancienne. 2004. 30. P. 35–56.

7. Bérenger A. Le métier de gouverneur dans l’empire romain de César a Dioclétien. De l'archéologie à l'histoire, 62. P., 2014.

8. Bonini R. I «Libri de cognitionibus» di Callistrato. Ricerche sull’alaborazione giurisprudenciale della « cognitio extra ordinem». Milano, 1964.

9. Braund D. Rome and the Friendly King. The Character of the Client Kingship. N.Y., 1984.

10. Brunt P.A. The administrators of Roman Egypt//JRS. 1975.65. P. 124–147.

11. Brunt P.A. Princeps and equites // Ibid.1983.73. P. 42–75.

12. Bryen A.Z. Judging Empire: Courts and Culture in Rome’s Eastern Provinces//Law     and History Review. 30. (2012). P. 771–811.

13. Burton G.P. Proconsuls, Assizes and the Administration of Justice under the Empire//JRS. 1975. 65. P. 92–106.

14. Burton G.P. The Government and provinces/The Roman world. Ed. by Wacher J. – L.; N.Y., 1987. Vol. 1. P. 415–448.

15. Burton G.P. Provincial Procurators and the Public Provinces//Chiron. 1993. 23. P. 13–28.

16. Cameron A. Circus factions. Blues and Greens at Rome and Byzantium. Oxf., 1976.

17. Сampbell J. B. Who were the “Viri Militares”?// JRS. 1975.65. P. 11–31.

18. Сampbell J. B. The Emperor and the Roman Army. 31 BC. – AD. 235. Oxf., 1984.

19. Cascio E. Lo. The emperor and his administration. General developments/ CAH. Second edition. V. 12. Cambr., 2005. P. 131–136.

20. Clavel-Leveque M., Leveque P. Villes et structures urbaines dans l’Occident romain. P., 1984.

21. Colin J. Les Exigences de la populace paienne dans la littérature greque chrétienne du II-e siècle//REG. 1965. 78. P. 330–335.

22. D’Arms J. H. Control, Companionship and Clientela: Some Social Functions of The Roman Communal Meal// Échos du Monde Classic – Classical Views. 1984. XXVIII. 3. P. 327–348.

23. D’Arms J. H. The Roman Convivium and the Idea of Equality//Sympotica. A Symposium on the Symposoin/Ed. O. Murray. Oxf., 1990. P. 308–320.

24. David J.–M. Le patronat judiciaire au dernier siècle de la Republique romain. Rome, 1992.

25. Dueck D. Strabo of Amasia: a Greek man of letters in Augustan Rome. L. and N.Y., 2003.

26. Duyvendac N. Restraining Regulations for Roman Officials in the Roman Provinces//Symbolae Van Oven. Leiden, 1946. P. 333–348.

27. Eck, W. ‘Augustus’ administrative Reformen: Pragmatismus oder systematisches Planen? // Acta classica.1986. 29. S. 105–120.

28. Eck W. Spezialisierung in der staatlichen Administration des römischen   Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit/ de Blois L. ed. Administration, Prosopography and Appointment Policies in the Roman Empire. [Impact of Empire I]. Amsterdam 2001. S. 1–23.

29. Eck W. Emperor, Senate and magistrates/CAH. Second edition. V. 11. Cambr., 2007. P. 214–237.

30. Eck W. The growth of administrative posts/CAH. Second edition. V. 11. Cambr., 2007. P. 238–265.

31. Galsterer H. Local and provincial institutions and government// CAH. Second edition. V. 11. Cambr., 2007. P. 344–360.

32. Garnsey P. The Lex Julia and the Appeal under the Empire//JRS. 1966. 56. P. 167–189.

33. Garnsey P. and Saller R. The Roman empire: economy, society and culture. Second edition. L.; N.Y., 2014.

34. Hands A.R. Charities and Social Aid in Greece and Rome. L., 1968.

35. Harl K.W. Civic coins and civic politics in the Roman East. A.D. 180–275. Berkeley, 1987.

36. Honoré A. M. Gaius. Oxf., 1962.

37. Horscotte H. Die Strafrechtspflege in den Provinzen der römischen Kaiserzeit zwischen hegemonialer Ordnungsmacht und lokaler Autonomie// Lokale Autonomie und römische Ordnungsmacht in den kaiserzeitlichen Provinzen vom 1. bis 3. Jahrhundert/Hrsg. Von V. Eck. München, 1999. S. 303–318.

38. Humbert M. La juridiction du Préfect d’Egypte d’August a Dioclétien/Burdeau F. et al. Aspects de l’Empire romain. (Travaux et recherches de la Faculté de Droit et de Sciences économiques de Paris. Série «Sciences historiques». № 1). P., 1964.

39. Jacques F. Le privilege de liberté. Politique impériale et autonomie municipale dans les cités de l’Occident romain (161–244). Rome, 1984.

40. Jacques F., Scheid J. Rome et l’integration de l’Empire (44 av. J.-C. – 260 ap. J.-C.). T. 1. Les structures de l’Empire romain. P., 1990.

41. Jones A.H.M. The Greek City from Alexander to Justinian. Oxf., 1983.

42. Jones C.P. The Roman World of Dio Chrysostom. L., 1978.

43. Isayeva V. Ancient Greece in the Mirror of Retoric. Isokrates [Antichnaja Grezija v zerkale ritoriki. Isokrat]. M., 1994.

44. Kaser M. Das römische Privatrecht. München, 1955.

45. Kelly Chr. Ruling the Later Roman Empire. Cambr. (Massachusetts) and L., 2004.

46. Kennedy G. The Art of Rhetoric in the Roman World 300 BC – AD 300. Princeton, 1972.

47. Kokkinia Chr. Ruling, inducing, arguing: how to govern (and survive) a Greek province/Roman Rule and Civic Life: Local and Regional Perspectives/L. De Ligt, et al. (éd.). Amsterdam, 2004. P. 39–58.

48. Kondoleon Ch. Domestic and Divine. Roman Mosaics in the House of Dionysos. Ithaca–L., 1995.

49. Langhammer W. Die rechtlische und soziale Stellung der Magistratus Municipales und Decuriones in der Übergangsphase der Städte von sich selbstverstanden Gemeinden zu Vollzugsorganen des spätantiken Zwangsstaaten (1.-4. Yahrhundert der Römishen Kaiserzait). Wiesbaden, 1973.

50. Lebedeva G.E. Social Structure of Early Byzantine Society (According Theodosian and Justinian Codes) [Sozial’naja structura rannevizantyskogo obshestva (po dannym kodeksov Theodosija i Yustiniana). L., 1980.

51. Lendon J.E. Empire of Honour. The Art of Government in the Roman World. Oxf., 1997.

52. Lehnen J. Adventus principis. Untersuchungen zu Sinngehalt und Zeremoniell der Kaiserankunft in den Städten des Imperium Romanum. Frankfurt-Berlin, 1997.

53. Leonhard R. Hospitium//RE. 1913. Bd. XVII. Sp. 2493–2498.

54. Levick B. Roman colonies in southern Asia Minor. Oxford, 1967.

55. Levick B. Domitian and the Provinces//Latomus. 1982.41. P. 50–73.

56. Levick B. The Government of the Roman Empire. A Sourcebook. L., Sydney, 1985.

57. Liebenam W. Städteverwaltung im römishen Kaiserreiche. Lpz., 1900.

58. Lintott A. Imperium Romanum. Politics and Administration. L. – N.Y., 1993.

59. Lobur J.A. Consensus, Concordia and the Formation of Roman Imperial Ideology. N.Y., L., 2008.

60. Luraghi N. One-Man Government: The Greeks on Monarchy/A Companion to Ancient Greek Government. H. Beck (ed.). Oxford, 2013. P. 131–145.

61. Mac Cormack S.G. Change and Continuity in Late Antiquity: The Ceremony of Adventus//Historia. 1972. 21. P. 721–752.

62. Mac Cormack S.G. Art and Ceremony in Late Antiquity. Berkeley – Los Angeles – L., 1981.

63. Mackie N. Local Administration in Roman Spain AD 14–212. Oxford, 1983.

64 .MacMullen R. Roman Imperial Building in the Provinces//HSCP. 64. 1959. P. 207–235.

65. MacMullen R. Roman Government’s Response to Crisis AD 235–337. New Haven–L., 1976.

66. Magie D. Roman Rule in Asia Minor to the end of the Third Century After Christ. Vol. 1. Princeton, 1960.

67. Mason H.J. Greek Terms for Roman Institutions. A Lexicon and Analysis. Toronto, 1974.

68. Mattingly D.J. Tripolitania. Ann Arbor, 1994.

69. Makhlayuk A.V. Polis-Republican Strutures and Traditions in the Age of Principate/Ancient Polis. Cours of Studies/Ed. by V.V. Dement’eva and I. E. Surikov [Polisno-respublikanskie struktury i tradizii v epokhu prinzipata/Antichnyy polis. Kurs lekziy/Otv. red. V.V. Dement’eva iI. E. Surikov]. M., 2010.

70.Meyer-Zwiffelhoffer E. . Zum Regierungsstil Pολιτικῶς ἄρχειν der senatorischen Stathalter in den kaiserzeitlichen griechischen Provinzen. Stuttgart, 2003.

71. Mierow H.E. The Roman Provincial Governor as he appears in the Digest and Code of Justinian. Colorado Springs, 1926.

72. Millar F. The Emperor in the Roman World (31 BC – AD 337). L., 1977.

73. Millar F. The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic. Ann Arbor, 1998.

74. Mommsen Th. Römisches Staatsrecht. Bd. 1. Aufl. 4. Tübingen, 1956; Bd. 2 Abt.1. Lpz., 1874.

75. Mommsen Th. Römisches Strafrecht. Lpz., 1899.

76. Morabito M. Les réalités de l’esclavage d’après le Digeste. Besanson, P., 1981.

77. Peachin M. Yudex vice Caesaris. Deputy Emperors and the Administration of Justice during the Principate. Stuttgart, 1996.

78. Pellizer E. Outlines of a Morphology of Sympotic Entertainment// Sympotica. A Symposium on the Symposoin/Ed. O. Murray. Oxf., 1990. P. 177–184.

79. Purcell N. The Arts of Government/The Oxford History of the Classical World/Ed J. Boardman et al. Oxf. – N.Y., 1986. P. 560–592.

80. Quass F. Die Honoratiorenschicht in den Städten des griechischen Ostens. Untersuchungen zur politischen und sozialen Entwicklung in hellenistischer und römischer Zeit. Stuttgart, 1993.

81. Roselaar S.T. Local Administration/The Oxford Handbook of Roman Law and Society. Ed by P.J. du Plessis, C. Ando and K. Tuori. Oxf., 2016. P. 124–136.  

82. Roseman C.H. Reflections of Philosophy: Strabo and geographical sources/Strabo’s Cultural Geography. The Making of a Colossourgia. Ed. by Dueck D., Lindsay H. and Pothecary S. N.Y., 2005. P. 27–41.

83. Saller R.P. Promotion and patronage in Equestrian Career //JRS. 1980.70. P. 44–63.

84. Saller R. Personal Patronage under the Early Empire. Cambr., 1982.

85.Seston W. Le décret de Digne tt la fin de l’autonomie municipale en Occident//REA. 1962. P. 314–325.

86.Sherwin-White A.N. The Letters of Pliny. A Historical and Social Commentary. Oxf., 1966.

87. Shulte C. Die Grammateis von Ephesos. Schreiberamt und Sozialstructur in einer Provinzhauptstadt des römischen Kaiserreiches. Stuttgart, 1994.

88. Slootjes D. The Governor as Benefactor in Late Antiquity/ Roman Rule and Civic Life: Local and Regional Perspectives/L. De Ligt, et al. (éd.). Amsterdam, 2004. P. 59–75.

89. A Dictionary of popular expressions. Ed. by Ja.M. Borovskiy. 2nd Ed. [Slovvar’ latiskikh krylatykh slov. Pod red. Ja.M. Borovskiy. 2-oe izdanie]. M., 1986.

90. Smyshliaev A.L. On the Evolution of State Clerical Personnel in the Roman Empire (3rd century A.D.)//JAH. 1979.3. P. 60–81 [Ob evoljuzii kanzeljarskogo personala v Rimskoy Imperii (3 v. n.e.)].

91. Smyshliaev A.L. Domitius Ulpianus and his treatise «On the Duties of a proconsul»//JAH. 1985.4. P. 221–226 [Domiziy Ul’pian i yego traktat «Ob objazannostjah prokonsula»].

92. Smyshliaev A.L. Ancient civil community: the absence or special kind of State system//JAH. 1989.3. P. 99–101 [Antichnaja grazhdanskaja obshchina: otsutstviye ili osobyy tip gosudarstvennosti].

93. Smyshliaev A.L. A State without bureaucracy (on the experience of the Early Roman Empire)/Antiquity and contemporaneity [Gosudarstvo bez byurokratii (na opyte Ranney Rimskoy imperii)/Antichnost’ i sovremennost’] M., 1991. P. 70–74.

94. Smyshliaev A.L. Roman imperial power in the age of Principate in contemporary foreign historiography//AJ. State and Law. 5.1991 (serias 4) [Rimskaja imperatorskaja vlast’ epokhi Prinzipata v sovremennoy zarubezhnoy istoriografii//RZH. Gosudarstvo i pravo]. 5.1991 (serija 4). P. 67–78.

95. Smyshliaev A.L. The Entry of the Governor in a Provincial City the adventus Ceremony According to Ulpianus//JAH. 1991.4 P. 106–117 [Vstuplenie namestnika v provinzial’nyy gorod: zeremonija adventus po Ul’pianu].

96. Smyshliaev A.L. Civilis dominatio: The Roman Governor in a Provincial City//JAH. 1997.3. P. 24–35 [Civilis dominatio: rimskiy namestnik v provinzial’nom gorode].

97. Smyshliaev A.L. The Roman Governor in a Provincial City: otium post negotium//JAH. 1999.4 [Rimskiy namestnik v provinzial’nom gorode: otium post negotium].

98. Smyshliaev A.L. Vet-Nurse at the Court of the Roman Governor//JAH. 2001.3. P. 36–58 [Njanja kormiliza v sude rimskogo namestnika]

99. Smyshliaev A.L. «Good Morals» and «Drastic Laws» in the Roman Court//IUS ANTIQUUM. Ancient Law. 2008.2(22). P. 76–96 [«Dobrye nravy» i «surovye zakony» v rimskom sude] 2(22). С. 76–96.

100. Surikov I.E. Ancient Greece: Politicians in the Context of the Age: Archaic and Early-Classical Periods [Antichnaja Grezija: politiki v kontekste epokhi: archaika i rannjaja klassika]. M., 2005.

101. Surikov I.E. Politicians in the Context of the Age. On the Brink of the New World [Politiki v kontekste epokhi. Na poroge novogo mira]. M., 2015.

102. Surikov I.E. Preconditions of the Formation of Ruler’s Cult prior to Hellenistic Greece/ «The Gods between the Men»: Ruler’s Cult in the Hellenistic, Posthellenistic and Roman World/Ed. by S.Ju. Saprykin, I.A. Ladynin [Predposylki stanovlenija kulta pravitelja v doellinisticheskoy Grezii/«Bogi sredi ljudey»: kul’t praviteley v ellinisticheskom, postellinisticheskom i rimskom mire/Otv. red. S.Ju. Saprykin, I.A. Ladynin]. M.; Spb., 2016. P. 34–75.

103. Talbert R. Pliny the Younger as Governor of Bithynia-Pontus//Studies in Latin Literature and Roman History. V. 2/Ed. C. Deroux. Bruxelles, 1980. Collection Latomus. V. 100. P. 412–435.

104. Talbert R. The Senate of imperial Rome. Princeton, 1984.

105. The Administration of the Roman Empire (241 BC – AD. 193). Ed. by D.C. Braund (Exeter Studies in History n. 18). Exeter, 1988.

106. Tudor D. Les contructions publiques de la Dacie romain d’aprés les inscriptions//Latomus. Revue d’études latines. 1964 .23. Fasc. 2. P. 271–301.

107. Vein P. Le pain et le cirque. Sociologie historique d’un pluralism politique. P., 1976.

108. Vliet van der E.Ch.L. The Romans and Us: Strabo’s Geography and the Construction of Ethnicity//Mnemosyne. Fourth Series. Vol. 3. Fasc. 3 (2003). P. 257–272.

109. Wallace-Hadrill A. Civilis princeps. Between citizen and king//JRS. 1982. 72. P. 32–48.

110. Weaver P. Familia Caesaris. Cambr., 1972.

111. Wörrle M. Stadt und Fest im Kaiserzaitlichen Kleinasien: Studien zu einer agonistischen Stiftung aus Oinoanda. München, 1988.

112. Yavetz Z. Plebs and Princeps. New Brunswick – Oxf., 1988.

 

СПИСОК СОКРАЩЕНИЙ

 

CAH – Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge

D – Digesta Justiniani. Berolini

HSCP – Harvard Studies in Classical Philology. Harvard

JAH – Journal of Ancient History. Moscow [Vestnik Drevney Istorii]

JRS – Journal of Roman Studies. London

LSJ – Liddel C., Scott R., Jones H.A. A Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford, 1940

RE – Pauly’s Real-Encyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Neue Bearbeitung. Begonnen von G. Wissowa, hrsg. Von W. Kroll

REA – Revue des études anciennes. Bordeaux

REG – Revue des études grecques. Paris

ВДИ – Вестник древней истории. Москва.

РЖ – Реферативный журнал. Общественные науки за рубежом. Серия 4. Государство и право. Москва.