Содержание

С.В. Близнюк. Латинский эллинизм и греческий латинизм в королевстве Кипр XIV–XVI вв.



С.В. Близнюк. Латинский эллинизм и греческий латинизм в королевстве Кипр XIV–XVI вв. // Исторический вестник. 2020. Т. ХXХI. С. 82—101.

S.V. Blizniuk. Latin Hellenism and Greek Latinism in the Kingdom of Cyprus in the 13th–16th centuries [Latinskij ellinizm i grecheskij latinizm v korolevstve Kipr XIV–XVI vv.]. Istoricheskij vestnik / Historical Reporter. Vol. 31. 2020. P. 82—101.


Ключевые слова: Кипр, Византия, латиняне, греки, идентичность, взаимодействие, этнические группы, культура, общество.

Key words: Cyprus, Byzantium, Latins, Greeks, identity, interaction, interference, ethnic groups, culture, mentality, society.


Abstract

The article analyzes the processes of Greek-Latin dialogue, ethno-cultural Cypriot-Latin integration, the formation of the Cypriot mentality in the kingdom of the crusaders in Cyprus in the XIII–XVth centuries. The author emphasizes that the political, social and economic development of the state inevitably entailed the need for dialogue between different ethnic groups and the formation of a new social and cultural community in Cyprus. In the XIII century mutual understanding and cooperation between the two ethnic groups were greatly obstructed due to distrust and fear of the conquerors towards the conquered). The subdued, in turn, needed to learn how to live with the conquerors, how to recognize them, while at the same time preserving their own traditions, language and Orthodox faith. The Orthodox church was the most important institute, that consolidated and preserved the Greek community in the Frankish Cyprus. The situation begins to change no earlier than in the middle of the XIVth century. The Greeks themselves begin to seek common ground with the conquerors. The first example of a deep Greek-Latin cooperation is the family of the famous Cypriot chronicler Leontios Machiras. The merchants and craftsmen as a whole were more mobile, pragmatic and ready for integration. The Frankish nobility, on the contrary, was closed for a long time and prevented the formation of an elite among the indigenous population.

The Cypriot-Genoese war of 1373–1374 contributed to overcome the bias and prejudice of the Latin nobility towards the Greeks. Military and human losses as well as the political struggle at the royal court lead to a decrease in the number of Cypriot nobility. Replenishment of its ranks with new members was possible from the local population. The process of anoblation of some local Greek families begins in the end of the XIVth century and continues during the XVth century. At first, the penetration of the Greeks into the Latin nobility begins at the level of personal contacts, personal trust of the kings and of the Latin nobility towards some representatives of other ethnic groups and only then this process reaches social, juridical and political spheres. In parallel, there is a community that identifies itself as «Cypriots» forming during that time. In this case the ethnic origin doesn’t play a paramount role. A «Cypriot» means a citizenship of the Cypriot kingdom, place of birth and submission to the king. At the same time the Greek-Cypriots keep their Byzantine identity. The Greek language that penetrates into the Latin society, the Orthodox faith and historical memory helped them in this respect. The Greek-Cypriots accept the Latin society and power, considering the history of the Kingdom of Cyprus as part of the Byzantine world, and the continuation of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. Based on the analysis of manuscript collections, education, theatre, and influence of the Italian Renaissance on the royal court the author concludes, that the perception of elements of a foreign culture and their incorporation into their own lead to a change in both the Greeks and the Latins of Cyprus not only in consciousness, mentality, but also in the subconsciousness, at the psychological level. Over the long years of Latin rule the Greeks adopted a feeling of impossibility to change the situation, the need to accept the Latin conquest of the island and adapt to it. The Latins, for their part, never regarded the conquered territory as a colony, which they simply exploited. They strongly demonstrate and prove that this is their land, which they defended as their own. Such a policy increased the confidence of the local population in the new government, forced it to rally around it, and engage in a dialogue and cooperation with it. Thus, Cyprus gives a brilliant example of a deep interpenetration, infiltration and integration of Latin and Greek cultures in the XIV–XVth centuries.


References

1. Amadi F. Chronique de Chypre / Publ. R. Mas-Latrie. Paris, 1891 (Repr. Amadi F. Cronaca di Cipro / Introduzione di. S. Beraud. Nicosia, 1999).

2. Arbel B. The Cypriot Nobility from the Fourteenth to the Sixteenth Century: A New Interpretation // Idem. Cyprus, the Franks and Venice, 13th–16th Centuries. London: VR, 2000. VI.

3. Bliznyuk S.V. Korolevstvo Kipr i ital’ianskie morskie respubliki v XIII–XV vv. Мoskva, 2016.

4. Bliznyuk S.V. Leontios Machairas i ego chronika «Povest’ o sladkoi zemle Kipr». Moskva, 2018.

5. Bliznyuk S.V. Mir torgovli i politiki v korolevstve krestonostsev na Kipre. Moscow, 1994.

6. Bliznyuk S.V. Kiprskaja pravoslavnaja tserkov // Pravoslavnaja entsiklopedija. Moskva, 2014. Т. 34. P. 21–25.

7. Bliznyuk S.V. Pervyj gumanitarnyj fond Pietro di Cafrano na Kipre (1393–1570) // More i berega. K 60-letiju S.P. Karpova. Moskva, 2009. P. 107–138.

8. Bliznyuk S.V. Chto chitali kiprioty v 14–15 vv. // Vizantijsky vremennik. 2016. Vol. 74 (99). P. 148–162.

9. Bliznyuk S.V. The Crusaders of the Later Middle Ages. The King of Cyprus Peter I Lusignan // The Crusades and the Military Orders: Expanding the frontiers of medieval latin christianity. Budapest, 2001. Р. 51–57.

10. Bliznyuk S.V. Il prezzo delle guerre dei re di Cipro (XIV–XV secc.) // Sudost-Forschungen 59/60 (2000/2001). P. 99–124.

11. Bustron F. Chronique de l’ile de Chypre / Publ. R. Mas-Latrie [Collection de documents inedits sur l’histoire de France. Melanges Historiques V]. Paris, 1886 (Repr: Bustron F. Historia overo commentarii de Cipro. Nicosia 1998).

12. Christoforaki I. East is East and West is West? Artistic Interchange across Frontiers in the Eastern Mediterranean // Cross-Cultural Interaction between Byzantium and the West, 1204–1669 / Ed. A. Lymberopoulou. London, New York, 2018. P. 152–172.

13. Coureas N. The Latin Church in Cyprus, 1195–1312. Aldershot-Brookfield, Vermont, 1997.

14. Coureas N. The Latin Church in Cyprus. 1313–1378. Nicosia, 2010.

15. Cyprus. Society and Culture 1191–1374 / Ed. A. Nicolau-Konnari, Ch. Schabel. Nicosia, 2005. P. 285–328.

16. Enlart C. Art gothique et la Renaissance en Chypre. Paris, 1898–1899.

17. Excerpta Cypria Nova. Voyageurs occidentaux a Chypre au XVe siecle / Ed. G. Grivaud. Nicosia, 1990.

18. Grivaud G. Entrelacs Chiprois. Essai sur les lettres et la vie intellectuelle dans le Royaume de Chypre 1191–1570. Nicosia, 2009.

19. Hill G. History of Cyprus. Cambridge, 1948. Vol. II–III.

20. Gongora L. Real grandeza de la Serenissima Republica di Genova. Madrid, 1665.

21. Kitromelides P. M. Κύπροι στη Βενετία // La serenissima and la Nobilissima: Venice and Cyprus in Venice. Nicosia, 2009. P. 207–217.

22. Khozhenije inoka Zosimy. 1419–1422 / Ed. Kh.M. Loparev // Pravoslavnyj palestinsky sbornik. Sankt-Peterburg, 1889. Vol. VIII. Part. 3. XXVI.

23. Kyrris C. History of Cyprus. With an introduction to the Geography of Cyprus. Nicosia, 1985.

24. Lacrimae Cypriae: Les laemes de Chypre / Ed. B. Imhaus. Nicosia, 2004. Vol. I–II.

25. Lettres communes du Pape Urbain V / Ed. M.-H. Laurent // Bibliotheque de l’Ecole francaise d’Athenes et de Rome. 3-rd ser. Paris, 1954–1986.

26. Lemesos: A History of Limassol in Cyprus from Antiquity to the Ottoman Conquest / Ed. A. Nocolau-Konnari, Ch. Schabel. Cambridge, 2015.

27. Liber Jurium Republicae Genuensis. II. Col. 806–815 // HPM. IX. Torino, 1857.

28. Lisciandrelli P. Trattati e negoziazioni politiche della Repubblica di Genova // Atti della Societa Ligure di Storia Patria. 1960.

29. Lusignan E. Description de tout l’isle de Chypre. Paris, 1580.

30. Machairas L. Recital Concerning the Sweet Land of Cyprus Entitled Chronicle / Ed. R.M. Dawkins. Oxford, 1932. Vol. I–II.

31. Mango C. Chypre, Carrefour du monde byzantine // Mango C. Byzantium and its Image: History and Culture in the Byzantine Empire and its Heritage. London: Aldershot, 1976. N. XVIII.

32. Mas-Latrie L. Histoire de l’ile de Chypre. Paris, 1855–1861. Vol. II–III.

33. Nicolaou-Konnari A. Alterity and Identity in Lusignan Cyprus from ca. 1350 to ca. 1450: the testimonies of Philippe de Mezieres and Leontios Makheiras // Identity/Identities in Late Medieval Cyprus / Ed. T. Papacostas, G. Saint-Guillain. Nicosia, 2014. P. 37–66.

34. Nicolaou-Konnari A. Ethnic Names and the Construction of Group Identity in Medieval and Early Modern Cyprus: the Case of ΚΥΠΡΙΩΤΗΣ // Κυπριακαί Σπουδαί. 64–65 (2000–2001) P. 259–275.

35. Nicolaou-Konnari A. Κύπροι στη διασποράς στην Ιταλία μετά το 1570/1: η περίπτοση της οικογένειας Δενόρες // La serenissima and la Nobilissima: Venice and Cyprus in Venice. Nicosia, 2009. P. 218–239.

36. Ortalli G. Venezia Mediterranea e Grecita Medievale: elazioni, conflitti, sintonie // L‘eredita greca e l’ellenismo veneziano / A cura di G. Benzoni. Venezia, 2002. P. 53–73.

37. Olympios M. Building the Sacred in a Crusader Kingdom. Gothic Church Architecture in Lusignan Cyprus, c. 1209–1373. Brepols Publ., 2018.

38. Olympios M., Parani M. The Art and Archaeology of Lusignan and Venetian Cyprus (1192–1571). Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2019.

39. Otten-Froux C. Quelques aspects de la justice a Famagouste pendant la periode genoise // Πράκτικα του Τρίτου Διεθνούς Κυπριολογικού Συνεδρίου. Nicosia, 2001. Vol. II. P. 333–351.

40. Otten-Froux C. Les relations politico-financieres de Genes avec le royaume des Lusignan (1374–1460) // Coloniser au Moyen Age / Publ. Par M.A. Ducellier. Paris, 1995. P. 61–75.

41. Puchner W. The Crusader Kingdom of Cyprus — a Theatre Province of Medieval Europe? Athens, 2006.

42. Röricht R. (hrsg.) Le pelirinage du moine augustin Jacques de Verone // Revue de l’Orient Latin III (1895).

43. Richard J. La situation juridique de Famagouste dans le royaume des Lusignans // Πράκτικα του A’ Διεθνούς Κυπριολογικού Συνεδρίου. Nikosia, 1972. Vol. II. P. 221–229.

44. Rudt de Collenberg W.H. The Fate of Frankish Noble Families Settled in Cyprus // Crusade and Settlement / Ed. P. Edbury. Cardiff, 1985. P. 268–272.

45. Schabel Ch. The Myth of Queen Alice and the Subjugation of the Greek Clergy of Cyprus // Identites croisees en un milieu mediterraneen: Le cas de Chypre / Ed. S. Fourrier, G. Grivaude. Univ. de Rouen et du Havre, 2006. P. 257–277.

46. Schryver J. Monuments of Identity: Latin, Frank, Greek or Cypriot? // Identites croisees en un milieu mediterraneen: Le cas de Chypre (antiquite — Moyen Age) / Ed. S. Fourrier, G.Grivaud. Univ. de Rouen et du Havre, 2006. P. 385–396.

47. Soulard T. L’ architecture gothique du royaume des Lusignan: les cathedrales de Famagouste et Nicosie // Identites croisees en un milieu mediterraneen: Le cas de Chypre / Ed. S. Fourrier, G. Grivaud. Univ. de Rouen et du Havre, 2006. P. 355–371.

48. Sperone C. Real grandezza della Serenissima Repubblica di Genova. Genova, 1669.

49. Strambaldi D. Chronique de Chypre / Publ. R. Mas-Latrie // Collection de documents inedits sur l’histoire de France. Histoire politique. Paris, 1893.

50. Tselikas A. Ἡ διαθήκη τοῠ Petro di Cafrano καὶ οἱ πράξεις ἑκλογῆς Κυπρίων Φοιτητῶν γιὰ τό Πανεπιστήμιο τῆς Πάδοβας (1393, 1436–1569) // Επετηρήδα. Κέντρο Επιστημονικών Ερευνών. Vol. XVII. Nicosia, 1988–1989. P. 261–292.

51. Weyl Carr A. Art in the Court of the Lusignan Kings // Crusades / Ed. A. Jotischky. London-New York: Routledge, 2008. Vol. IV. P. 302–338.

52. Weyl Carr A. Byzantines and Italians on Cyprus: Images from Art // Dumbarton Oaks Papers. 1995 (49). P. 339–357.


Близнюк Светлана Владимировна доктор исторических наук, доцент кафедры истории средних веков Московского государственного университета имени М.В. Ломоносова.

Svetlana V. Bliznyuk — Dr. Hab. (History), Associate Professor, Department of History of the Middle Ages Lomonosov Moscow State University.


Номер журнала, к которому относится содержание
Разработка сайта — IT-Production