Избранное

Qui in consilio estis: судебные советники наместников в эпоху Ранней империи

DOI

 

Кантор Г.М. Qui in consilio estis: судебные советники наместников в эпоху Ранней империи // Исторический вестник. 2017. Т. ХIХ. С. 50—88.

 

Kantor G.M. Qui in Consilio Estis: the governor and his advisers in the Early Empire (published in English) [Qui in consilio estis: sudebnye sovetniki namestnikov v epohu rannej imperii]. Istoricheskij vestnik / Historical Reporter. Vol. 19. 2019. P. 50–88.

 

Key Words: the Late Roman Empire, the Early Roman Empire, Provincial Governors, Ggovernor’s Advisers, Augustus’ Edicts from Cyrene.

 

Ключевые слова: поздняя Римская Империя, ранняя Римская Империя, губернаторы провинций, советники губернатора, указы Августа из Кирены.

 

Abstract

This article provides an overview of the literary, legal and documentary evidence of the period of the Late Republic and the Principate on the composition and mandate of judicial advisers of the Roman governors of the province, to the institutionalization and the "bureaucratization" of their role in the third century BC as well As the officials in Rome, governors retain during this period considerable freedom in choosing their advisers. This freedom, however, was limited by the Convention, which required the Council to invite other Roman officials in the province and representatives of the local elite, as well as the reduction of the usual number of Council members in comparison with the Republican period, to about 12 members. This limited the ability of the Governor to use appointments to his Council for political purposes. The Council made it possible to involve local legal expertise, including in matters of local law, but not in all cases the legal advisers of the governors were its full members. Although our sources do not give grounds to consider that the sentence of the Governor were in all cases bound by the recommendation of the Council, some evidence speaks in favor of the assumption that in some provinces (Achaia, Asia, Bithynia) in the period between Principate of Augustus and Trajan, the Council could be replaced in the criminal trial the permanent judicial commissions (quaestiones) on the Roman model, directly attested in edicts August of Cyrenaica.

 

Аннотация

В данной статье дается обзор литературных, юридических и документальных свидетельств периода Поздней Республики и Принципата о составе и полномочиях судебных советников римских наместников провинции, до институционализации и «бюрократизации» их роли в III в. н. э. Как и должностные лица в самом Риме, наместники сохраняют в этот период значительную свободу в выборе своих советников. Эта свобода, однако, была ограничена конвенцией, требовавшей приглашать в совет других представителей римской власти в провинции и представителей местной элиты, а также сокращением обычной численности совета в сравнении с республиканским периодом, до примерно 12 членов. Это ограничивало возможности наместника использовать назначения в свой совет в политических целях. Совет давал возможность привлекать местную юридическую экспертизу, в т. ч. в вопросах местного права, однако не во всех случаях юридические консультанты наместников были его полноправными членами. Хотя наши источники не дают оснований считать, что приговор наместника был во всех случаях связан рекомендацией совета, ряд свидетельств говорит в пользу предположения, что в ряде провинций (Ахайя, Азия, Вифиния) в период между принципатами Августа и Траяна совет мог заменяться в уголовном судопроизводстве постоянными судебными комиссиями (quaestiones) по римскому образцу, прямо засвидетельствованными в эдиктах Августа из Киренаики.

 

References

 

1. Amarelli F. Consilia principum. Napoli, 1983.

2. Ameling W L. Flavius Arrianus Neos Xenophon // Epigraphica Anatolica.

Bd. 4. 1984. S. 119–122.

3. Badian E. Zöllner und Sünder: Unternehmer im Dienst der römischen Republik. Darmstadt, 1997.

4. Balogh E., Pflaum H.-G. Le “consilium” du préfet d’Egypte. Sa composition // Revue historique de droit français et étranger. T. 30. 1952. P. 117–124.

5. Blanco Pérez A. Nomenclature and Dating in Roman Asia Minor: M. Aurelius/a and the 3rd century AD // Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik. Bd. 199. 2016. P. 271–293.

6. Bosworth A.B. Arrian’s Literary Development // Classical Quarterly. Vol. 22. 1972. P. 163–185.

7. Braund D. Свита (cohors) наместника и идеология римского империализма // ВДИ. 1999. №1. С. 73–85.

8. Braund S.M. Juvenal: Satires, Book 1. Cambridge, 1996. (Cambridge Greek and Latin Classics.)

9. Braund S.M. Seneca: De Clementia. Oxford, 2009.

10. Brennan T.C. The Praetorship in the Roman Republic. Oxford, 2000. Vols. 1–2.

11. Brown P.M. Horace: Satires I. Warminster, 1993.

12. Buckland W.W. A Text-Book of Roman Law from Augustus to Justinian. 3rd ed., rev. by P. Stein. Cambridge, 1966.

13. Burton G.P. Proconsuls, Assizes and the Administration of Justice under the Empire // Journal of Roman Studies. Vol. 65. 1975. P. 92–106.

14. Callebat L. La prose d’Apulée dans le De Magia: Eléments d’interprétation // Wiener Studien. Bd. 97. 1994. P. 143–167.

15. Chapot V. L a province romaine proconsulaire d’Asie. Paris, 1904.

16. Cichorius C. Das Offizerkorps eines römischen Heeres aus dem Bundesgenossenkriege // Id. Römische Studien. Leipzig, 1922. S. 130–185.

17. Courtney E. A Commentary on the Satires of Juvenal. London, 1980.

18. Crook J.A. Consilium principis: Imperial councils and counsellors from Augustus to Diocletian. Cambridge, 1955.

19. Crook J.A. Legal Advocacy in the Roman World. Ithaca, NY, 1995.

20. De Visscher F. Les Édits d’Auguste découverts à Cyrene. Louvain, 1940.

21. Della Corte F. Bruto e Orazio in Asia Minore // Scritti sul mondo antico in memoria di Fulvio Grosso. Roma, 1981. P. 133–143.

22. Di Stefano G. Una nuova edizione del senatus consultum de agro Pergameno // Rendiconti dell’Academia dei Lincei. Ser. IX. Vol. 9. 1998. P. 707–748.

23. Drew-Bear T. The city of Temenouthyrai in Phrygia // Chiron. Bd. 9. 1979. P. 275–302.

24. Duncan-Jones R. Power and Privilege in Roman Society. Cambridge, 2016.

25. Eck W. Provincial Administration and Finance // Cambridge Ancient History. 2nd ed. Vol. 11. 2000. P. 266–292.

26. Eck W. Spezialisierung in der staatlichen Administration des Römischen Reiches in der Hohen Kaiserzeit // Administration, Prosopography and Appointment Policies in the Roman Empire / Ed. by L. de Blois. Amsterdam, 2001. P. 1–23.

27. Eck W. Imperial Administration and Epigraphy: In Defence of Prosopograph // Representations of Empire: Rome and the Mediterranean World / Ed. by A.K. Bowman, H.M. Cotton, M. Goodman, S. Price. Oxford, 2002. (Proceedings of the British Academy; 114). P. 131–152.

28. Färber R. Römische Gerichtsorte: Räumliche Dynamiken von Juridiktion im Imperium Romanum. München, 2015.

29. Foti Talamanca G. Richerche sul processo nell’Egitto greco-romano. Milano, 1974–1984. Vols. 1–2.

30. Fournier J. Entre tutelle romaine et autonomie civique: L’administration judiciaire dans les provinces hellénophones de l’Empire romain (129 av. J.-C. — 235 apr. J.-C.). Athenes, 2010.

31. Fraenkel E. Horace. Oxford, 1957.

32. Frier B.W. The Rise of the Roman Jurists: Studies in Cicero’s Pro Caecina. Princeton, 1985.

33. Frier B.W., McGinn T.A.J. A Casebook on Roman Family Law. Oxford, 2004.

34. Garnsey P. The Lex Iulia and Appeal under the Empire // Journal of Roman Studies. Vol. 56. 1966. P. 167–189.

35. Garnsey P. The criminal jurisdiction of governors // Journal of Roman Studies. Vol. 58. 1968. P. 51–59.

36. Gaughan J.E. When Murder Was Not a Crime: Homicide and Power in the Roman Republic. Austin, 2010.

37. Giménez-Candela T. Bemerkungen über Freilassungen in consilio // Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschicte. Romanistische Abteilung. Bd. 113. 1996. S. 64–87.

38. Greenidge A.H.J. The Legal Procedure of Cicero’s Time. Oxford, 1901.

39. Guerber É. Les cités grecques dans l’Empire romain: Les privileges et les titres des cités de l’Orient hellénophone d’Octave Auguste à Dioclétien. Rennes, 2009.

40. Habicht C. New Evidence on the Province of Asia // Journal of Roman Studies. Vol. 65. 1975. P. 65-91.

41. Haensch R. Capita provinciarum: Statthaltersitze und Provinzialvervaltung in der römischen Kaiserzeit. Mainz am Rhein, 1997.

42. Hammond M. The Antonine Monarchy. Rome, 1959. (Papers and Monographs of the American Academy in Rome; 20).

43. Hardy E.G. C. Plinii Caecilii Secundi Epistulae ad Traianum imperatorem cum eiusdem responsis. London, 1889.

44. Harris W.V. An inscription recording a proconsul’s visit to Samothrace in 165 A.D. // American Journal of Philology. Vol. 113. 1992. P. 71–79.

45. Harris W.V. Roman Power: A Thousand Years of Empire. Cambridge, 2016.

46. Hopkins K. Conquerors and Slaves: Sociological Studies in Roman History. Cambridge, 1978.

47. Hunink V. Apuleius of Madauros: Pro se de magia (Apologia) / Ed. with a commentary. Amsterdam, 1997. Vol. 1–2.

48. Hurley D.W. Suetonius: Divus Claudius. Cambridge, 2001.

49. Janiszewski P., Stebnicka K., Szabat E. Prosopography of Greek Rhetors and Sophists of the Roman Empire. Oxford, 2015.

50. Jones A.H.M. The Later Roman Empire, 284–602: A social, economic and administrative survey. Oxford, 1964. Vol. 1–3.

51. Jones A.H.M. The Criminal Courts of the Roman Republic and Principate / With pref. by J.A. Crook. Oxford, 1972.

52. Jones C.P. Juristes romains dans l’Orient grec // Comptes rendus de l’Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres. 2007. P. 1331–1359.

53. Kalinina A. Der Horazkommentar des Pomponius Porphyrio: Untersuchungen zu seiner Terminologie und Textgeschichte. Stuttgart, 2007.

54. Kallet-Marx R.M. Hegemony to Empire: The Development of the Roman Imperium in the East from 148 to 62 BC. Berkeley, 1995.

55. Kallet-Marx R.M. Quintus Fabius Maximus and the Dyme Affair (Syll. 684) // Classical Quarterly. Vol. 45. 1995. P. 129–153.

56. Kantor G. Knowledge of law in Roman Asia Minor // Selbstdarstellung und Kommunikation: Die Veröffentlichung staatlicher Urkunden auf Stein und Bronze in der Römischen Welt / Hrsg. von R. Haensch. München, 2009. P. 249–265.

57. Kantor G. Local Courts of Chersonesus Taurica in the Roman Age // Epigraphical Approaches to the Post-Classical Polis: Fourth Century BC to Second Century AD / Ed. by P. Martzavou and N. Papazarkadas. Oxford, 2012. P. 69–86.

58. Kantor G. ‘Decide their controversies with one another’: Jewish Courts in the Province of Asia [“Razbirat’ svoi tiazhby mezhdu soboj”: Sudy iudejskikh obschin v provintsii Asija] // VDI. 2012. №3. P. 138–149.

59. Kapetanopoulos E. Arrian’s Praenomen Again // Athens Annals of Archaology. 6. 1973. P. 301–304.

60. Kaser M. Das Römische Zivilprozessrecht. München, 1966. (Rechtsgechichte des Altertums im Rahmen des Handbuchs der Altertumswssenschaft; III.4.)

61. Kunkel W. Untersuchungen zur Entwicklung des römischen Kriminalverfahrens in vorsullanischer Zeit. München, 1962.

62. Kunkel W. Das Konsilium im Hausgericht // Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschicte. Romanistische Abteilung. Bd. 83. 1966. S. 219–251.

63. Kunkel W. Die Funktion des Konsiliums in der magistratischen Strafjustiz und im Kaisergericht // Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschicte. Romanistische Abteilung. Bd. 84. 1967. S. 218–244; Bd. 85. 1968. S. 253–329.

64. Kunkel W., Wittmann R. Staatsordnung and Staatspraxis der römischen Republik. Abschn. 2: Die Magistratur. München, 1995.

65. Laffi U. In greco per i Greci: Ricerche sul lessico greco del processo civile e criminale romano nelle attestazioni di fonti documentarie romane. Pavia, 2013.

66. Larsen J.A.O. Tituli Asiae Minoris, II, 508 // Classical Philology. Vol. 38. 1943. P. 177–190; 246–255.

67. Lavan M. The Spread of Roman Citizenship, 14–212 CE: Quantification in the Face of High Uncertainty // Past and Present. 230. 2016. P. 3–46.

68. Lévy I. Études sur la vie municipale de l’Asie Mineure sous les Antonins. 2de série: Les offices publics // Revue des études grecques. Vol. 12. 1899. P. 255–289.

69. Lewis R.G. Asconius: Commentaries on Speeches by Cicero. Oxford, 2006.

70. Liebenam W. Consilium // Realencyclopädie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft. Bd. 4. 1901. Sp. 915–922.

71. Liebs D. Hofjuristen der römischen Kaiser bis Justinian. München, 2010.

72. Lintott A. The Constitution of the Roman Republic. Oxford, 1999.

73. Magie D. Roman Rule in Asia Minor to the End of Third Century after Christ. Princeton, 1950. Vol. 1–2.

74. Mattingly H.B. The Date of the Senatus Consultum de Agro Pergameno // American Journal of Philology. Vol. 93. 1972. P. 412–423.

75. Mazeaud J. La nomination du judex unus sous la procédure formulaire à Rome. Paris, 1933.

76. Millar F. The Emperor in the Roman World. 2nd ed. London, 1992.

77. Mitchell S. Anatolia: Land, Men and Gods in Asia Minor. Oxford, 1993. Vol. 1–2.

78. Mommsen T. Decret des Proconsuls von Sardinien L. Helvius Agrippa vom J.

68 n. Chr. // Hermes. Bd. 2. 1867. S. 102–127.

79. Mommsen T. Der Rechtsstreit zwischen Oropos und den römischen Steuerpächtern // Hermes. Bd. 20. 1885. S. 268–287.

80. Mommsen T. Römisches Staatsrecht. 3. Aufl. Leipzig, 1887–8.

81. Mouritsen H. The Freedman in the Roman World. Cambridge, 2011.

82. Oliver J.H. A Roman Governor visits Samothrace // American Journal of Philology. Vol. 87. 1966. P. 75–80.

83. Oliver J.H. Arrian and the Gellii of Corinth // Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies. Vol. 11. 1970. P. 335–338.

84. Oliver J.H. A Parallel for the Tabula Banasitana // American Journal of Philology. Vol. 97. 1976. P. 370–372.

85. Oliver J.H. Greek Constitutions of Early Roman emperors from Inscriptions and Papyri. Philadelphia, 1989.

86. Palme B. Roman Litigation – Reports of Court Proceedings // Law and Legal Practice in Egypt from Alexander to the Arab Conquest: A Selection

of Papyrological Sources in Translation / Ed. by J.G. Keenan, J.G. Manning, U. Yiftach-Firanko. Cambridge, 2011. P. 482–511.

87. Palmer A. The Satires of Horace. London, 1883.

88. Passerini A. Le iscrizioni dell’agorà di Smirna concernanti la lite tra i publican e i pergameni // Athenaeum. Vol. 15. 1937. P. 252–283.

89. Pflaum H.-G. Les carrières procuratoriennes équestres sous le Haut-Empire Romain. Paris, 1960–61. Vol. 1–3.

90. Pleket H.W. The Greek Inscriptions of the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden at Leyden. Leiden, 1958.

91. Ramsey J.T. Cicero, Pro Sulla 68 and Catiline’s candidacy in 66 B.C. // Harvard Studies in Classical Philology. Vol. 86. 1982. P. 121–131.

92. Richardson J. The administration of the empire // Cambridge Ancient History. 2nd ed. Vol. 9. 1994. P. 564–598.

93. Robert L. Le culte de Caligula à Milet et la province d’Asie // Id. Hellenica. Vol. 7. Paris, 1949. P. 206–238.

94. Robert L. Les inscriptions de Didyme // Gnomon. Bd. 31. 1959. P. 657–674.

95. Robert L. Opera minora selecta. Vol. 3. Paris, 1969.

96. Robert L., Robert J. La Carie: Histoire et géographie historique avec le recueil des inscriptions antiques. T. 2: Le plateau de Tabai et ses environs. Paris, 1954.

97. Rousset D. Le territoire de Delphes et la terre d’Apollon. Paris, 2002.

98. Rudd N. The Satires of Horace. Cambridge, 1966.

99. Ruggiero A. Nuove riflessioni in tema di tribunale domestico // Sodalitas: Scritti in onore di Antonio Guarino. Vol. 4. Napoli, 1984. P. 1593–1600.

100. Ryan F.X. The consular candidacy of Catiline in 66 // Museum Helveticum. Bd. 52. 1995. S. 45–48.

101. Schulz F. Principles of Roman Law. Oxford, 1936.

102. Schulz F. History of Roman Legal Science. Oxford, 1946.

103. Seston W. Euzennat M. Un dossier de la chancellerie romaine, la Tabula Banasitana, étude de diplomatique // Comptes rendus de l’Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres. 1971. P. 468–490.

104. Sherwin-White A.N. The Letters of Pliny: A Historical and Social Commentary. Oxford, 1966.

105. Sherwin-White A.N. The Tabula of Banasa and the Constitutio Antoniniana // Journal of Roman Studies. Vol. 63. 1973. P. 86–98.

106. Smyshliaev A.L. Roman governor as a magistrate (Towards the problem of specificity of the Roman state in the early imperial period) [Rimskij namestnik kak magistrat (K voprosu ob osobennostiakh rimskoj gosudarstvennosti v epokhu Rannej imperii)] // Gosudarstvo v istorii obschestva (k problem kriteriev gosudarstvennosti). Moscow, 1998. P. 282–295.

107. Smyshliaev A.L. Roman governor in a provincial city: Otium post negotium [Rimskij namestnik v provintsial’nom gorode: Otium post negotium] // VDI. 1999. №4. С. 59–70.

108. Spawforth A.J.S. Notes on the Third Century AD in Spartan Epigraphy // Annual of the British School at Athens. Vol. 79. 1984. P. 263–288.

109. Stadter P.A. Plutarch and His Roman Readers. Oxford, 2014.

110. Suolahti J. The Council of L. Cornelius P.f. Crus in the Year 49 B.C. // Arctos.

Vol. 2. 1958. P. 152–163.

111. Syme R. Consulates in Absence // Id. Roman Papers. Vol.1. Oxford, 1979. P. 378–392.

112. Syme R. Proconsuls d’Afrique sous Antonin le Pieux // Revue des études anciennes. T. 61. 1959. P. 310–319.

113. Talbert R.J.A. The Senate of Imperial Rome. Princeton, 1984.

114. Taylor L.R. The Voting Districts of the Roman Republic. Rome, 1960.

115. Taylor L.R., Scott R.T. Seating Space in the Roman Senate and the Senatores Pedarii // Transactions of the American Philological Association. Vol. 100. 1969. P. 529–582.

116. Thomasson B.E. Laterculi Praesidum. Göteborg, 1984. Vol. 1–2.

117. Veyne P. ΠΡΟΚΡΙΤΟΣ: Jurés provinciaux dans des insriptions de Sparte // Revue de philologie, de littérature et d’histoire anciennes. T. 59. 1985. P. 21–25.

118. Weaver P.R.C. A New Latin Word? // American Journal of Philology. Vol. 87. 1966. P. 457–458.

119. Weaver P.R.C. Consilium praesidis: Advising Governors // Thinking Like a Lawyer: Essays on Legal History and General History for John Crook on his Eightieth Birthday / Ed. by P. McKechnie. Leiden, 2002. (Mnemosyne Suppl. 231). P. 43–62.

120. Westermann W.L. Tuscus the Prefect and the Veterans in Egypt (P.Yale inv. 1528 and P. Fouad I 21) // Classical Philology. Vol. 36. 1941. P. 21–29.

121. Wlassak M. Römische Prozessgesetze: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Formularverfahrens. Leipzig, 1919. Bd. 1–2.