The First World War. 1916


december 2016

Publishing: ANO «Runivers»

ISSN 2306-4978

Pages: 176


The First World War had been going on for nearly three years and was being waged by the European states under the aegis of protection of democracy, liberation of the oppressed people, and fighting back of the German militarism and Russia’s barbarism. It was dragging on and unearthing major problems both in Europe and outside of it, bringing with it general social unrest in concerns about the future, for irrevocable consequences of the ever expanding conflict. While the ruling elite of Russia was trying to achieve a military victory that was of crucial importance to them, the civil population perceived the war as fundamentally foreign and inexplicable. Theт situation on the battlefields wholly depended on the generals’, officers’ and the soldiers’ ability to fight.
This issue is dedicated to the military campaign of 1916. The article by Vasily Zh. Tsvetkov analyses the details of strategic operations on the Eastern Front. One of the key figures in those operations was the Infantry General M.V. Alekseyev, head of the Superior Commanderin-Chief’s headquarters. The crucial role (gems to role) of this general in commanding the Russian troops only recently became an object of thorough research. Public attention was for the first time directed to his fate and his role in WWI following the “Forgotten names: General M.V. Alekseyev” discussion held by the Association for the First World War Studies, the Russian History Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the World History Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Institute of the Slavic and Balkan Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The discussion was hosted by A.G. Kavtaradze, a famous Soviet military historian from the Russian History Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and the general’s grand-niece, T.P. Borisova, was one of the speakers.
The article by A.V. Oleynikov describes the military actions of the Russian army in all the military theatres of the Eastern Front, and evaluates the effect of those actions on the overall military confrontation. The Don Cossacks and their role in the examined war period are the subject matter of the article by A.V. Venkov. The situation with food and forage supplies became critical towards the end of 1916, claims M.V. Oskin in his article, and the crisis only deepened later on. Taking the Kaluga Garrison as a model, A.S. Aniskov shows an unusual situation in the rearward garrisons of the country, when the concentration of troops in many towns in the central Russia gave rise to the phenomenon of “military towns”. Everyday life in the city of Nikolayev experienced a strong military impact, as described in the article by V.A. Parkhomenko (Ukraine). 
The Polish issue. at the time of WWI is examined in the article by A.I. Shelyag. In different regions of Russia a number of documentary almanacs have been published recently that are dedicated to the influence of the war on the deep rear situation. Some of them are reviewed in this issue: on the events in the Samara, Orenburg and Ufa provinces. The researchers continue their quest for sources pertaining to the various aspects of the war. This issue features a heretofore unpublished document discovered by V.D. Lebedev. The document had a crucial role in the history of Russian military aviation.

Alexey E. Titkov


V.Zh. Tsvetkov. General M.V. Alekseyev, head of the Commander-in-ChiefÅLs Headquarters. War strategy experience at the end of 1915–1916
A.V. Oleynikov. The Russian Imperial army in the campaign of 1916: military action theatres in the strategic context
A.V. Venkov. The Don Cossacks in the WWI: the 1916 campaign
M.V. Oskin. Food and forage supplies of the Russian army in the 1916 campaign: between profusion and crisis
A.S. Aniskov. The Kaluga garrison in 1916
V.A. Parkhomenko. Everyday life in Nikolayev in 1916
A.I. Shelyag. “The Polish issue” at the 3rd congress of the Union des Nationalit’s in Lausanne (June 1916)

V.N. Paramonov. The province of Samara during the years of WWI. July 1914 — February 1917. Collection of documents
S.M. Iskhakov. Bashkiria during the years of WWI. 1914–1918: Collection of documents and materials

Report on the air battle near Molodechno in 1916